After a little further digging around, it turns out that The Extraordinary Adventures of Adèle Blanc-Sec (2010) was based on a series of graphic novels by Jacques Tardi. Given the nature of her adventures, that is hardly surprising.
That also explains many of the assumptions of the film. For example, there is an apparent arch-nemesis called Professor Dieuleveult, who has an unexplained history of antagonism but who only features as a relatively minor character in the action. I expect it bears a similar relation to the source material as The Adventures of TinTin (2011), another gripping yarn of a film.